Spread of The Ancestors of Man In The World From The DNA Trail


The findings of fossil specimens from various locations in the world have also not been able to explain Darwin's theory of evolutionary assumptions about common ancestry with Homo sapiens and hominids.

INDEPHEDIA.com - More than a million years ago creatures standing tall have lived and spread on the earth. They initially walked a little hunched with a large lower jaw and eyebrow bone protrusions that made the face look like an ape.

19th century evolutionists say, they are the ancestors of humans who currently control the earth. The results of the reconstruction and anatomical comparisons of fossil bones found in a number of locations in Europe, Asia and Africa serve as the basis of this assumption. For example, part of the skull, teeth and upper femur found by Eugene Dubois at Trinil, Ngawi in 1890 and was named Pithecanthropus Erectus.

Based on research, fossil remains from the middle Pleistocene age which is estimated to be around 1.5 million years old add to the collection of ancient human fossils hunted by evolutionist paleontologists in uncovering the missing link that links the family line of apes to homo sapiens, modern humans living today.

However, almost 1.5 centuries have passed, the findings of fossil specimens from various locations still have not been able to explain Darwin's theory of evolution assumptions about common ancestors of Homo sapiens and hominids, although this theory has become an important part of biological building.

On the other hand, genetic science is now in rapid development and seems to be adding to the list of questions to earlier theories about the evolutionary tree which became a branching diagram of living species based on mere anatomy.

Tracked Through Genes

A decade ago the human genome was mapped. The origin and trace of human spread can be traced through genes. With DNA testing (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) using the Y chromosome, a man today can trace his ancestors from the father's line, as well as the mitochondrial DNA test, a woman can find out her ancestors from the maternal line.

In each human cell nucleus there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, each of which has a strand of thread containing genetic information containing more than three billion DNA letters in the form of phosphate groups, base sugars and nitrogen.

Humans are estimated to have around 30-35 thousand per cell carrier genes that continue to be passed from one generation to the next over thousands of years without much change.

DNA research conducted on more than a thousand people of various ethnicities concluded that the ancestors of modern humans refer to a man and a woman (Adam and Eve) originating from one point in East Africa, which is traced to 100-200 thousand years old.

The African continent is the place where people carry the oldest genes, while people outside Africa such as Europe, Asia, America, including indigenous Australians and Papuans, only lead to the age of genes as old as 50-70 thousand years ago.

From there it was concluded that in this period a number of ancestral groups in East Africa then migrated gradually out of the continent, through the bridge of the Arabian peninsula and spread throughout the world.

Based on an analysis of thousands of DNA samples carried out by a team of geneticists led by Spencer Wells, this common ancestors migration out of Africa is divided into a number of branches.

The first branch in the human distribution map, known that the ancestors from east Africa headed north in the Middle East (45 thousand years ago) settled long ago and then later generations migrated again to North Africa and then some of them to Southern Europe. This migration process occurs gradually in thousands of years.

Other branches, some of which headed to Central Asia 40 thousand years ago, from there, the next offspring began to walk north. There are those who turn west (35 thousand years ago) mixed with groups from the Middle East to be the ancestors of Europeans, some to the northwest to Russia and turn spread in the Scandinavian region.

This Central Asian pioneer in the genetic atlas then spread to South Asia and Indo-China and then turned north to spread in East Asia. Other branches headed north in Siberia and became Eskimos (15 thousand years ago), some of which crossed to the Americas, bringing down the Indians.

Long before that, at 50 thousand years ago there were also groups of people who came out of Africa, past the southern coast of Yemen to the south of India, then towards the northeast (Indo-China) and continued to East Asia.

There are also branches from the south of India that cross the coast to Sumatra, Java and enter the Continent of Australia and also the mainland of Papua. Other branches that had settled in Sumatra then headed north towards the South China Sea which before the melting ice age was still land, and Kalimantan which at that time was still one with Sumatra and Java.

They are expected to continue to the area which is now the Philippine Islands, some of which spread to the Japanese Islands. Some of them turn to mainland China mixed with Central Asian descendants and some north to North America to become Indians we now know.

Spread of Homo Sapiens

The spread of homo sapiens to various parts of the world whose flow is like tangled threads takes place gradually over a period of tens of thousands of years with almost no change in genetic variation.

It seems that genetic studies have not been able to associate the homo sapiens gene with hominid genes as described in the evolutionary tree, moreover this human predecessor has reached the age of a million years before humans (homo sapiens) first appeared.

The results of research by Svante Paabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology about the existence of neanderthal-derived genes (which first appeared around 500,000 years ago and extinct 30,000 years ago), amounting to 1.8 to 2.6 percent in all humans outside Africa is also still being debated.

Some parties, such as Andrea Manica from Cambridge University, reject the statement that there is a possibility of mating between these two species and make sure that it could only be a part of genetic similarity.

Another genome expert Tony Capra who examined data on genetic variation from 20 thousand Africans said that the neanderthal gene passed to homo sapiens was not unique, because it was also found in the ancient genes of African ancestors, such as in the Yoruba, Esan and Mende tribes, but was lost when the descendants of ancient Africans migrated outside the continent.

The African population does have more genetic variation from one tribe to another and is a place to hide alleles (genes with varying properties) that cannot be found in people outside Africa, while human genes that live spread outside Africa very homogeneous.

However, genetically all humans on Earth come from the same ancestors and are very identical, where the genetic variation between individuals is not greater than 0.1 percent.

Thus there should not be a race that feels higher than other races, for example, the caucasoid race feels higher than the negroid race which is actually their elder brother, because all humans are actually in a race of homo sapiens.

The biggest genetic variation known among humans is between two different sexes, male and female, which is around 1-2 percent. With this difference humans can survive by producing offspring and breeding. (IN.SJ/ENG/***)

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