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Five Things You Need to Know During Japanese Surrender in World War II

 



INDEPHEDIA.com - World War II (WWII) ended 75 years ago, but not all countries commemorate the same day. Several countries commemorate WWII on different dates.

Wednesday, the anniversary of Japan's official surrender of September 2, 1945 to the United States, when documents were formally signed that ended years of bloody fighting in a ceremony aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.

This Japanese surrender in some countries is known as VJ Day. However, some countries marked August 15 as the end of the war, the day the Japanese emperor made a speech announcing his surrender.

1. What is VJ Day?

Launching AP, VJ Day (VJ Day) stands for Victory over Japan Day, marked by the United States and its allies in the war and by the Asian victims from Japan who won their release from years of cruelty and oppression.

Several countries, including Britain, Australia, the Netherlands and Korea, marked Japan's surrender on 15 August. Other countries, including the United States, mark the day on September 2, while the Philippines, China and Russia mark September 3.

Japan mourned its war death on August 15 in a solemn ceremony attended by the emperor, political leaders and veteran families.

2. Why are there different dates?

Countries celebrating August 15 marked Japan's public announcement of its surrender, while others commemorated September 2, when Japan officially signed its surrender, ending a conflict that lasted, to varying degrees, nearly half a century in parts of Asia.

US President at the time Harry Truman said that the VJ Day proclamation had to wait until Japan officially signed the terms of surrender.

Countries also mark different dates for political and historical reasons. In 2014, China designated September 3 as a new historic day to mark each year the Victory Day for the Chinese People's Resistance War Against Japanese Aggression. The country celebrated with a military parade.

The Philippines also commemorates September 3, the day in 1945 when Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita surrendered in the country. Russia, which declared war on Japan on August 9, carried out military action against Japan until early September.

3. What happened on August 15, 1945?

At noon on August 15, a few days after the US atomic bombing of Hiroshima on August 6 and Nagasaki on August 9, Japanese Emperor Hirohito broadcast a message of surrender to his people on the radio.

The broadcast came one day after Japan told the United States and its allies that they were surrendering, and Hirohito and the Japanese minister signed the Imperial Surrender Letter.

The emperor's radio statement was previously recorded on August 14 in secret. Palace officials protect the notes from military officials who storm the palace to steal them. The emperor's voice, which most Japanese heard at the time, was muffled and barely audible due to the poor quality of the voice.

4. What happened on September 2, 1945?

The official signing surrender of Japan took place aboard the warship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, where in 1854 Navy Commodore Matthew Perry had signed an agreement with Japan to open up the feudal state to trade with the United States.

Aboard the USS Missouri, Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu and General Yoshijiro Umezu signed the Instrument of Surrender. The two men were later convicted of war crimes.

General Douglas MacArthur, also Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces, signed for the United Nations, with Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz signing for US Delegations from other allied countries, including Britain, France, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, New Zealand, China and the Soviet Union, witnessed the half hour ceremony.

5. What happened after?

The official signing of Japan's surrender ordered that the country should cease all military action, release prisoners of war and others detained and follow other provisions.

Since 1954, Japan has spent tens of billions of dollars on development assistance, originally intended as war compensation, for the region. But it took more than two decades for Japan to normalize diplomatic relations with several countries in its wartime Asia.

This restored relations with South Korea in 1965, and with China in 1972, although disputes over wartime history continue to affect Japan's relations with its neighbors.

Japan has not signed a peace agreement with Russia due to territorial disputes and has not yet established diplomatic relations with North Korea. (SJ.IN/MA/*)

 

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