Six Countries That Have Colonized Indonesia - Before proclaiming its independence on August 17, 1945, for centuries, Indonesia had felt colonized by several foreign countries, from Portuguese and Spanish traders, to Dutch colonialism with its VOC, and finally Japan with its slogan Nippon Cahaya Asia .

In fact, the struggle against these invaders was not easy. Many freedom fighters in the country have sacrificed their lives and property to drive out invaders from Indonesian soil. To revisit history, here is, summarizing the six countries that have colonized Indonesia.

1. Portuguese (1509-1595)
Portugal was the first country to successfully enter and colonize Indonesia. One of the important figures, Alfonso de Albuquerque. The Portuguese succeeded in introducing the archipelago to European life.

The beginning of the arrival of the Portuguese was to the Maluku area to look for spices. His arrival was warmly welcomed by the King and the people of Maluku at that time. Until finally, the Portuguese broke the agreed rules by implementing unhealthy monopolistic practices.

The colonialism carried out by the Portuguese spread to various parts of Indonesia. One of them is Java Island. In 1602, Dutch troops came to defeat the Portuguese troops, until finally the colonialization carried out by the Portuguese ended.

2.Spain (1521 - 1692)
Spain is one of the European states that is actively shipping to Southeast Asia. Their goal was to achieve the spice-producing countries after successfully entering Indonesia.

The Portuguese, who at that time were still colonizing Indonesia, considered that Spain violated the Portuguese monopoly rights, even though they were basically located in a different trading area.

Portuguese cooperated with the Kingdom of Ternate, while Spain cooperated with the Kingdom of Tidore. However, there is still a prolonged trade competition between the two countries.

Finally in 1529, the conflict resulted in an agreement that Spain must leave Maluku and conduct trade in the Philippines. Meanwhile the Portuguese continued to trade in Maluku.

3. The Netherlands (1602-1942)
Of all the countries that colonized Indonesia, the Netherlands had the longest colonized, reaching 346 years. During that time, the Dutch managed to control the islands of Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Papua.

No different from other countries, the aim of the Netherlands was to trade and find spices. Due to the defeat of the Portuguese in 1602, the Dutch started their colonialization by establishing a trading partnership in Batavia which was named the VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie).

On December 31, 1799, the VOC was dissolved by the Dutch government. The end of the VOC was not good for the people. At that time, the archipelago called the Dutch East Indies, was handed over to the Kingdom of the Netherlands and they formed the Cultuur Stelsel system or forced cultivation.

In May 1940 at the beginning of World War II, the Netherlands suffered defeat because the country was controlled by Nazi Germany. In March 1942, the Netherlands also lost to the archipelago by Japan. This was what marked the end of Dutch colonialism and continued in Japanese hands.

4. France (1806 - 1811)
In times of VOC crisis, the Netherlands was also defeated by France and its colonization area fell to the French. In 1808, King Louis Napoleon as the King of France, sent Marshal Williem Daendels to Jakarta, which was then called Batavia, and was made Governor General in Indonesia.

Under his leadership, France managed to fly its flag on the VOC trading boat, indicating that France had begun its colonization of Indonesia. Daendels' ruthless and dictatorial rule earned him various condemnations. Until finally, he was replaced by Jan Williem Janssens.

On 18 September 1811, Janssens declared his defeat with the British, he signed an agreement that the entire island of Java was surrendered and controlled by the British.

5. England (1811-1816)
The defeat of France at the hands of Janssens was the beginning for the British to dominate the island of Java. Under the leadership of Stamford Raffles, Indonesia underwent many changes, including abolishing monopoly and slavery, and dividing the island of Java into 16 residencies.

As a result of the conflict that occurred in Europe between the Netherlands and England, it affected the government of Java Island, which at that time was in British hands. As a result of this conflict, an agreement was formed that the Dutch officially re-colonized and controlled all parts of Indonesia.

6. Japan (1942 - 1945)
Early arrival on March 8, 1942, Japan had good intentions by planning to help liberate Indonesia. But, it seems that over time, they showed a dictatorial and cruel attitude, namely the forced labor system known as Romusha.

Not only that, Japan also created a military organization, with the aim of fighting against the United States and its allies because Japan was involved in World War II.

Japan suffered defeat because the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasi in Japan, were dropped by the atomic bomb by the United States. After that, Japan was on the verge of defeat. On August 15, 1945, Japan declared its surrender and this marked the end of its colonization.

Those are the six countries that were once colonizers of Indonesia. Their goal is almost the same, namely controlling Indonesia's natural wealth, and this nation proclaimed its independence on August 17, 1945. (SJ.IN/ED/*)


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