Genghis Khan, Founder of The Mongol Empire - Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire, which is touted as the second largest empire in world history after the British Empire.

The date, month and year of Genghis Khan's birth are not known with certainty. Some scholars give his birth year 1162 and others prefer 1167.

The eldest son of Yesugei, the leader of the Kiyad (Kiyan) tribe, was born with the name Temujin (pronounced: Temuchin or TiemuZhen). His mother, Hoelun, was from the Olkhunut tribe.

Genghis Khan (Temujin) was born in the area of the Khentii Mountains, in present-day Töv and Khentii Provinces in northern Mongolia.

Temujin's name was named after the enemy leader whose father killed him. However, other sources note that Temujin's name was named after a Tartar (Tatar) prisoner.

Local legend says, the baby Temujin clutched a blood clot in his right hand, a sign that bad things would happen soon.

When Temujin was 9 years old, he was sent out of his tribe because he was to be betrothed to Borte (Bortei), daughter of the leader of the Onggirat tribe, Dei-secen.

Unfortunately, Temujin's father, Yesugei, died from Tatar poisoning before his intention of getting married could be carried out.

Yesugei, Temujin's father, was poisoned by his enemy just as he was returning home after accompanying Temujin to the Onggirat tribe.

In addition to his father being poisoned, Temujin's life got worse after his right to power as the successor to the tribal chief was taken away by someone else on the grounds that Temujin was too young.

Because he was afraid that he would reclaim his right to rule over the Borjigin tribe, Temujin and his family were expelled from the tribe.

Life for Temujin and his family was miserable. With very limited food supplies, he and his siblings live by hunting.

By the time he was a teenager, the chief of the Borjigin tribe sent troops to kill Temujin. He was caught and taken prisoner by his enemies.

However, he managed to escape from detention and survive with the help of people who were still loyal to Yesugei.

When he reached adulthood, Temujin struggled and gathered his own strength.

Temujin's leadership and martial talents led to victory over his enemies and his army grew in number.

As his troops grew, Temujin managed to defeat his enemies, such as the Tartars, Kereyids, Naimans and Merkids.

In a confederation of Mongols that met at a great gathering (Kurultai) around the Kerulen River in 1206, Temujin was formally appointed as their leader.

In the Mongolian confederation, Temujin was appointed and given the title Genghis Khan, which means ruler of the universe.

Genghis according to the Mongolian spelling is Chinggis, but the word 'Genghis' is more recognizable today and it comes from Arab scholars who did not have the letter ch in their language.

During the reign of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire began many conquests. The art of war of the Mongols was recognized by opponents and had advantages.

The conquered territories of the Mongol Empire, encompassing the entire Eurasian continent, began with the conquest of the Western Xia Dynasty in North China and the Kingdom of Khawarezmia in Persia.

At its peak, the Mongol Empire controlled most of Southeast Asia to central Europe.

Genghis Khan died on 18 August 1227 of an unknown disease, possibly initially the result of falling from a horse while he was out hunting several months earlier.

Genghis Khan's grave is kept secret so as not to be damaged by others. Until now the location of his grave is not known for sure.

However, medieval sources state that his grave is in the vicinity of the sacred mountain Burkan Kuldun.

After the death of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire was divided into four parts, namely the Yuan Dynasty (China), Ilkhanate (Persia), Chagatai Khanate (Central Asia) and Golden Horde (Russia).

In government, the Mongol Empire was led by the Khagan (Great Khan descended from Genghis Khan) for generations. (*)

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