Perlak Sultanate, Islamic Kingdom in Aceh - The Peureulak Sultanate (Peurlak) or the Perlak Sultanate is an Islamic kingdom in Indonesia located in Peureulak, East Aceh, Aceh Province.

The Perlak Sultanate was founded by Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Aziz Shah, an Arab descendant with a local woman. This sultanate was founded on 1 Muharram 225 Hijri or 840 AD.

Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abdul Aziz Shah or better known as Sultan Alauddin Shah was the first sultan of the Perlak Kingdom who ruled between 520–544 Hijri or 1161–1186 AD.

City on the East Coast of Sumatra

The origin of the name Perlak is derived from the name of a type of quality wood that grows here, commonly used for shipbuilding. Therefore this area is known as Negeri Perlak.

In the 8th century AD, Perlak developed as an advanced trading port due to its natural products and strategic position on the Malacca Strait trade route.

During its development, Bandar Perlak became the main port on the east coast of northern Sumatra and was visited by many ships originating from Arabia and Persia.

It is also what makes the development of Islamic society in this area, especially as a result of mixed marriages between Muslim merchants and local women.

In his past, Sultan Alauddin Shah changed the name of his royal capital from Bandar Perlak to Bandar Khalifah.

After death, Sultan Alauddin Shah and his wife, Princess Meurah Mahdum Khudawi, were buried in Paya Meuligo, Peureulak, East Aceh.

Civil War and Division of Territory

The message of Islam became widely known to Perlak during the reign of the third sultan, Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah.

After Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Abbas Shah died in 363 Hijri or 913 AD, there was a civil war between the Muslims in this area.

The civil war occurred because of pitting one another. During the next two years there was a vacancy in the reign of the empire. At that time, there was no sultan who ruled the Kingdom of Perlak.

After winning the war in 302 Hijri or 915 AD, Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah ascended the throne.

At the end of the reign of Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Ali Mughat Shah, the upheaval among the Muslims in Perlak occurred again.

This time, fighting against one another was won by Sultan Abdul Malik Shah Johan Sovereign, so that the next sultans were taken from the Johan Sovereign group.

After the death of Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Abdul Malik Shah Johan Sovereign (seventh sultan) in 362 H (956 AD), there was another upheaval for about four years.

The upheaval ended with peace. However, the Perlak Kingdom was divided into two jurisdictions, namely Perlak Pesisir and Perlak Inland.

Perlak Pesisir was led by Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah (986 – 988). Meanwhile, Perlak Outback was led by Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Sovereign (986 – 1023).

Attacked by the Sriwijaya Kingdom

Sultan Alaiddin Syed Maulana Shah, sultan of Perlak Pesisir died when the Sriwijaya Kingdom attacked Perlak in 986 AD.

Under the leadership of Sultan Makhdum Alaiddin Malik Ibrahim Shah Johan Berdaulat, after the death of the sultan of Perlak Pesisir, all of Perlak was reunited.

The presence of Sriwijaya troops in the Perlak area, Sultan Malik Ibrahim Syah responded by reviving the enthusiasm of his people to fight against troops from the Sriwijaya Kingdom.

The great war between the Kingdom of Perlak and Sriwijaya took place for many years and only ended in 1006 AD.

At that time, the Sriwijaya troops decided to withdraw from the battle to prepare for an attack by King Dharmawangsa from the Medang Kingdom on the island of Java.

With the end of the war between the Sultanate of Perlak and Sriwijaya, the whole region of Perlak has since been led by the descendants of Sultan Malik Ibrahim Syah who is from the Sunni group. (*)

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