The Kingdom of Lamuri, Forerunner Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam

Photo Source: Wikipedia - The Lamuri Kingdom is a kingdom located in Aceh Besar District with its center in Lam Reh, Mesjid Raya District, Aceh, Indonesia.

A number of historians and history buffs have their own opinions and are still debating about the location of the Lamuri Kingdom.

T. Iskandar in his dissertation De Hikayat Atjeh (1958), estimated that Lamuri was by the sea (beach), to be precise near Krueng Raya, Aceh Besar District, Nangroe Aceh Darussalam Province.

Meanwhile, H. M. Zainuddin, an Acehnese history enthusiast, said that Lamuri was located in Aceh Besar close to Indrapatra, which is now in Kampung Lamnga.

Another Aceh history enthusiast, M. Junus Jamil, said that Lamuri is located near Kampung Lam Krak in Suka Makmur District, Aceh Besar District, Aceh Province.

The Portuguese writer, Tome Pires, mentions the location of the Lamuri Sultanate between the Aceh Darusalam Sultanate and the Biheue region. That is, the territory of the Lamuri Sultanate extended from the coast to the interior.

Established Since the 900s AD

The Lamuri Kingdom is thought to have existed since the mid-IX century AD or around the 900s AD, which first appeared before the founding of Aceh Darussalam.

At the beginning of this century, the Sriwijaya Kingdom had become a kingdom that controlled and owned many conquered areas. In 943 AD, Sriwijaya conquered Lamuri and brought it under his control.

Foreign Sources and Saga

The existence of the Lamuri Kingdom was generally based on news from outside, such as by foreign traders and sailors who came from China, Arabia and India before 1500 AD.

In addition, the existence of this kingdom which can be used as a reference comes from a number of local sources, such as the Hikayat Melayu and Hikayat Atjeh.

Foreign sources mention the name of the kingdom that preceded Aceh with several names, namely "Lamuri", "Ramni", "Lambri", "Lan-li" and "Lan-wu-li".

The Chinese writer Zhao Rugua (1225) mentions, "Lan-wu-li" annually sends tribute to "San-fo-chi" (Srivijaya).

Meanwhile, in the book Nagarakertagama (1365) mentions "Lamuri" among the areas that Majapahit claimed to be his subordinates.

The Portuguese writer, Tomé Pires, in his Suma Oriental notes that Lamuri is subject to the king of Aceh.

According to the Malay saga, Lamiri was the second area on the island of Sumatra that was converted to Islam by Shaykh Ismail before he converted to Islam the Sultanate of Samudera Pasai, one of the Islamic kingdoms in Aceh.

News sources from Arab traders said that Lamuri was the first place visited by traders and sailors who came from India and Arabia.

The teachings of Islam have been brought at once by these newcomers. Based on W. P. Groeneveldt's analysis in 1416, all the people in Lamuri had embraced Islam.

Reigning Kings

The Lamuri Kingdom, which was said to be the forerunner to the formation of the Aceh Darussalam Sultanate, was ruled by several kings.

Evidence of the existence of the kings of the Lamuri Kingdom by the discovery of approximately 84 tombstones scattered in 17 cemeteries, 28 of which have inscriptions.

Of the 28 existing tombstones, there were 10 kings who ruled Lamuri, each with the title of malik and 2 with the title of sultan.

The names of these kings include Malik Syamsuddin (died 822 H/1419 AD), Malik 'Alawuddin (died 822 H/1419 AD) and Muzhhiruddin (estimated as a king, date of death unknown).

Then, Sultan Muhammad bin 'Alawuddin (died 834 H/1431 AD), Malik Nizar bin Zaid (died 837 H/1434 AD) and Malik Zaid (bin Nizar) (died 844 H/1441 AD).

Furthermore, Malik Jawwaduddin (died 842 H/1439 AD), Malik Zainal 'Abidin (died 845 H/1442 AD), Malik Muhammad Syah (died 848 H/1444 AD) and Sultan Muhammad Syah (died 908 H/1503 AD).

Among these names, in Lam Reh there is the tomb of Sultan Sulaiman bin Abdullah (d. 1211), the first ruler in Indonesia who is known to have held the title of sultan. (IND/US)

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