History of The Pagaruyung Kingdom, From Hindu-Buddhist Style to Islamic Sultanate


INDEPHEDIA.com - The Pagaruyung Kingdom (Pagaruyuang) was a kingdom that once stood on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. The location of the kingdom is currently in the Province of West Sumatra (West Sumatra) and parts of present-day Riau.

The name Pagaruyung comes from the name of the Nibung or Ruyung tree and refers to the stamped inscription of Sultan Tangkal Alam Bagagar from Pagaruyung which reads Jawi script.

The founder of the Pagaruyung Kingdom

The Pagaruyung Kingdom was founded by Adityawarman in 1347 AD. At that time, at the beginning of its establishment, this kingdom was still Hindu-Buddhist.

Adityawarman is the son of Adwayawarman as sculpted on the Kuburajo Inscription, and son of Dara Jingga, the daughter of the Dharmasraya kingdom as mentioned in Pararaton.

Thus, Adityawarman is of Minangkabau-Javanese descent, the son of Adwayawarman (leader of the Pamalayu Expedition from the Kediri Kingdom) and Dara Jingga (daughter of the Dharmasraya Kingdom).

Regarding his origins, some historians also argue that Adityawarman was the son of the founder of the Majapahit Kingdom, Raden Wijaya, and Dara Jingga.

Despite differences of opinion among scholars, Adityawarman was a cousin of Jayanegara, the second king of Majapahit from his mother's side.

From the manuscript carved on the back of the Amoghapasa statue, it is stated that in 1347, Adityawarman proclaimed himself king in Malayapura with the title Maharajadiraja.

Before becoming king of Pagaruyung, Adityawarman was originally sent to subdue areas in Sumatra and reigned as a subordinate king (uparaja) of Majapahit.

After establishing the Pagaruyung Kingdom, the power of Adityawarman was estimated to be strong enough to dominate the central part of Sumatra and its surroundings.

Turned into an Islamic Sultanate

In the 17th century AD, the Pagaruyung Kingdom turned into an Islamic sultanate with its first king named Sultan Alif --according to Minangkabau custom.

Also in the 17th century AD, the Pagaruyung Kingdom was forced to recognize the sovereignty of the Aceh Sultanate and recognize the Acehnese governors appointed by the VOC for the west coast of Sumatra.

The collapse of the Pagaruyung Kingdom

This kingdom collapsed during the Padri War, after the signing of an agreement between Indigenous Peoples and the Dutch, which made the Pagaruyung Kingdom area under Dutch control.

Pressured by the Padri, the Pagaruyung royal family asked the Dutch for help to work together against the Padri.

As a result of this agreement, the Dutch made it a sign of the surrender of the Pagaruyung Kingdom to the Dutch government.

After the Dutch managed to take Pagaruyung from the Padri, in 1824 Yang Tuan Pagaruyung Raja Alam Muningsyah returned to Pagaruyung.

In 1825, the last king of Minangkabau, Sultan Arifin Muningsyah, died and was buried in Pagaruyung. (IND/US)

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