Four Typical Rare Fauna of Sumatra Island, Indonesia

Sumber Foto: Canva - The island of Sumatra, which is also known by other names Pulau Percha, Andalas and Suwarnadwipa (Sanskrit, means Golden Island) is the sixth largest island in the world located in Indonesia, with an area of 473,481 km².

On the island of Sumatra live a variety of fauna, some of which are rare and protected because they are threatened with extinction.

In their habitat, these various fauna are found, among others, in the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (TNBBS), Gunung Leuser National Park, Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park, Way Kambas National Park and sometimes other unprotected places. notes that there are at least 4 species of rare Sumatran fauna that are protected.

The four fauna, namely the Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelli), Sumatran Tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) and Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maximus).

Sumatran Orangutans

(Photo Source: Gibbon Indonesia Foundation)

The Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelli) is the rarest orangutan species. Compared to the Bornean Orangutan, the body endemic to Sumatra is smaller.

The Sumatran orangutan is about 4.6 feet tall and weighs 200 pounds. Females are smaller, standing about 3 feet tall and weighing 100 pounds.

In nature, Launch Wikipedia, Sumatran orangutans survive in Aceh Province (NAD), the northernmost tip of Sumatra. These primates used to be more widely distributed, when they were found further south in the 1800s such as in Jambi and Padang.

There are also small populations in North Sumatra Province along the border with NAD, especially in the forests of Lake Toba.

The survey on Lake Toba found only two habitat areas, Bukit Lawang (defined as a wildlife reserve) and Gunung Leuser National Park.

In 2002, the World Conservation Union placed this species on the IUCN Red List with critical status.

A 2004 survey estimated that there are around 7,300 Sumatran orangutans still living in the wild.

Some of them are protected in five areas in Gunung Leuser National Park and others live in areas that are not protected: the northwestern and northeastern Aceh blocks, Sungai Batang Toru Barat, Sarulla Timur and Sidiangkat.

A breeding program has been established in the Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park in Jambi and Riau Provinces and resulted in a new population of Sumatran Orangutans.

Sumatran Tiger

(Photo Source: WWF Indonesia)

The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is a population of Panthera tigris sondaica that inhabits the island of Sumatra and is the only member of the Sunda tiger subspecies that has survived to this day.

The Sumatran tiger is classified as critically endangered on the red list of threatened species released by the IUCN World Conservation Society.

The Sumatran tiger has the smallest size and the darkest fur color among all other tiger subspecies. The black patterns are wide and spaced tightly and also coincide.

Adult male Sumatran tigers average 92 inches from head to toe or about 250 cm long from head to toe and weigh 300 pounds or about 140 kg. The height of the male can reach 60 cm.

Meanwhile, the average female has a length of 78 inches or about 198 cm and weighs 200 pounds or about 91 kg.

Sumatran Rhino

(Photo Source: Indonesian Rhino Foundation)

The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), also known as the hairy rhinoceros or two-horned Asian rhinoceros, is an endangered species from the Rhinocerotidae family.

This rhino is one of five rhino species that are still alive today even though their population is already small.

The Sumatran rhinoceros is the only remaining species of the genus Dicerorhinus. This species is the smallest rhino, although it is still a large mammal.

The height of the Sumatran rhino reaches 112-145 cm at the shoulders, with an overall body and head length of 2.36-3.18 m, and a tail length of 35-70 cm.

The weight of the rhino is reported to range from 500 to 1,000 kg, with an average of 700–800 kg, although one record reports of a specimen weighing 2,000 kg.

Like the African rhino species, the Sumatran rhino has two horns; the larger is the nasal horn, usually 15–25 cm, while the other horns are usually shaped like an apex.

Most of the Sumatran rhino's body is covered with reddish-brown hair. For most of its life, the Sumatran Rhinoceros is a solitary animal, except during mating and raising offspring.

Sumatran Elephant

(Photo Source: WWF Indonesia Foundation)

The Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus) is a subspecies of the Asian elephant which only lives on the island of Sumatra.

The Sumatran elephant is smaller than the Indian elephant subspecies. Its population is decreasing and it is a critically endangered species.

However, the Sumatran Elephant is the largest mammal in Indonesia. It weighs up to 6 tonnes and grows to 3.5 meters at the shoulder.

These 'giant' herbivores are intelligent and have larger brains compared to other land mammals.

Large enough ears help elephants hear well and help reduce body heat.

The trunk is used to get food and water by holding or grasping the tip which is used like a finger to scoop. (*)

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