Tamiang Kingdom, The Oldest Kingdom in Aceh After The Perlak Sultanate

Photo Source: Baranewsaceh

INDEPHEDIA.com - The Kingdom of Tamiang or the Sultanate of Banua Tamiang or Benua Tunu is one of the kingdoms that once stood in Aceh Province, Sumatra Island, Indonesia.

The Tamiang Kingdom is the oldest kingdom in Aceh after the Perlak Sultanate (Peureulak) which ruled between 840-1292.

Currently, the territory of the Tamiang Kingdom is in Aceh Tamiang Regency which was split from East Aceh Regency in 2002.

Before the teachings of Islam entered Tamiang, this area was generally still under Hindu-Buddhist influence.

This is indicated by the explanation of the Tamiang Kingdom contained in the Srivijaya Inscription.

In its time, the territory of the Tamiang Kingdom was bordered by the Raya River or the Malacca Strait in the north and Besitang in the south.

In the east, the Tamiang Kingdom is bordered by the Malacca Strait and in the west is Mount Segama (Mount Bendahara/Wilhelmina Gebergte).

Origin of the name Tamiang

According to Wikipedia, the name of the Tamiang Kingdom was originally taken from the word "Tamiang" which also comes from the word "te-miyang".

The name is taken from a legend originating from this region which means it does not itch or is immune to bamboo miang.

It is also related to the historical story about King Tamiang named Pucook Sulooh.

When he was still a baby, the king was found in a bamboo grove of Betong or betung (the Tamiang term "bulooh").

The king who found him at that time was named Tamiang Pehok, he then took and brought the baby.

As an adult, he was crowned King of Tamiang with the title "Pucook Sulooh Raja Te-Miyang", which means a king who is found in rebongs but is not itchy or immune from itching.

Data on the Existence of the Tamiang Kingdom

Data regarding the existence of the Tamiang Kingdom, according to Acehtamiangkab, is recorded in the Sriwijaya Inscription which was translated by Prof. Nilkanta Sastri in "The Great Tamralingga (capable of) Strong Action in Dangerous Battle" (Moh. Said 1961:36).

Then, ancient Chinese data in the book "Wee Pei Shih" which was rearranged by I.V. Mills, 1937, page 24 recorded the country of Kan Pei Chiang (Tamiang) which is 5 Km (35 Nautical Miles) from Diamond Point (Posri).

The Islamic Kingdom of Tamiang is also mentioned in The Rushinuddin's Geographical Notices (1310 AD) and is recorded as "Tumihang" in verse 13 of Nagara Kartagama's book (M.Yamin, 1946: 51).

In addition, the existence of this kingdom is known from cultural heritage objects found at the Tamiang site (Discovery by T. Yakob, Meer Muhr and Author Sartono, et al).

The Heyday and Decline of the Tamiang Kingdom

The Tamiang Kingdom once reached its peak of glory under the leadership of Raja Muda Sedia who ruled between 1330-1352.

The end of Raja Muda Sedia's reign was marked by stories about the attack by the Majapahit Kingdom on the Benua Tamiang Kingdom.

When the condition of the kingdom recovered, Mangkubumi Muda Sedinu ruled there and moved the center of government to Pagar Alam, around Simpang Jernih.
After Mangkubumi Muda Sedinu (1352–1369) came to power, the reins of government were replaced by King Po Malat (1369–1412).

Due to various factors, around the 1500s the Tamiang Kingdom experienced various setbacks. The heyday of the Tamiang Islamic Empire ended in 1558.

The things that caused the decline of the Tamiang Kingdom, besides being attacked by the Majapahit army in East Java, the territory of this kingdom was also always moving.

Besides that, the decline of the Tamiang Islamic Empire was also caused by the weakness of the rulers and the decline of the kingdom's economy. (*)

The King or Sultan of Tamiang

- Young Sultan Sedia (330–1352)
- Mangkubumi Muda Sedinu (1352–1369)
- Sultan Po Malat (1369–1412)
- Sultan Po Kandis (1454–1490)
- Sultan Po Garang (1490–1528)
- Pendekar Sri Mengkuta (1528–1558)

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