Amoghapasa, Statue from Kertanagara to The Malay King

Photo Source: Wikipedia - Amoghapasa statue or Paduka Amoghapasa is a statue of a gift from the king of Singhasari (Singosari) in East Java to the Malay king in Dharmasraya, Sumatra Island, Indonesia.

This statue was presented by Singhasari King, Kertanagara, to the Malay King, Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauliwarmadewa, in 1208 Saka or 1286 AD.

The Amoghapasa statue is made of andesite stone measuring 163 centimeters high and 97-139 centimeters wide.

The script and language used in Amoghapasa Arca is Old Javanese, except in the last line which uses Sanskrit.

Meanwhile, the stone statue in this statue is the embodiment of Lokeswara, as mentioned in the Padang Roco Inscription.

Lokeswara ("Lord of the World") or Awalokiteswara ("Lord who looks down") is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassionate nature of all Buddhas.

The Lokeswara statue in the statue is accompanied by fourteen followers (disciples) of Amoghapasa on both sides and in the background.

The fourteen retainers, four each standing on either side with an upturned posture honoring and venerating Amoghapasa, while another ten seated on lotuses hover in the background.

At the bottom of the Lokeswara Statue and 14 followers are engraved seven pearls, in the form of Buddhist symbols, namely bodhisattvas, stupas, chakras, tara, elephants and deer.

On the pedestal (base) of this rectangular statue there is an inscription called the Padang Roco Inscription which explains the gift of the statue.

Regarding the delivery of the Amoghapasa statue, it is written on the pedestal that it is dated 1 suklapakṣa (half-light) in the month of Bhadrawada in 1208 Saka or 22 August 1286.

Meanwhile, on the back of the statue there is an inscription called the Amoghapasa Inscription or the Dharmasraya Inscription dated 1346 AD.

The back of the statue is written in Old Sumatran script and in Sanskrit.

In 1347 AD, Adityawarman added an inscription on the back of the statue to state that this statue represents himself. This writing is called the Amoghapasa Inscription.

Apart from the addition of script carvings, it is also possible that Adityawarman moved this statue from Padang Roco to Rambahan.

It is suspected that the removal and addition of the additional inscriptions were an attempt by Adityawarman to strengthen his political legitimacy for the Malay Kingdom in Dharmasraya.

The plinth and the Amoghapasa Arca which were sent by Kertanegara from Java were found separately and in different years.

Part of the statue was found at the Rambahan Site. Its discovery was first reported by the controller (supervisor) Twiss to the Board of Directors of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen in 1884.

The Rambahan site is located near the Langsat River which is about 10 kilometers upstream of the Batanghari River, Sawahlunto Regency, West Sumatra.

Meanwhile, the pedestal called the Padang Roco Inscription was found in the Padang Roco Jorong Sungai Langsat bathing complex, Nagari Siguntur, Sitiung District, Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatra, in 1911.

Although the pedestal and the Amoghapasa statue were found separately, in reality the two parts are one unit.

When found, Amoghapasa's face and arms were damaged, as were the carvings of some of his followers.

Now, the Amoghapasa statue and its pedestal are kept at the National Museum of Indonesia in Jakarta with inventory numbers D.198-6469 for the statue and D.198-6468 for the pedestal. (*)

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