Ancient Egyptian History From Standing to Roman Conquest


Ancient Egypt in its history is divided into several periods based on the reign of pharaohs. - A series of traces of Ancient Egyptian history covering the period since the establishment of pre-dynastic settlements in the northern Nile River Valley to Egypt were conquered by the Romans in 30 BC. The era of the pharaoh was thought to have begun around 3200 BC, that is, since the Upper and Lower regions of Egypt joined into one state until it fell into the hands of the Macedonians in 332 BC (BC).

Ancient Egypt in its history is divided into several periods based on the reign of pharaohs. The timing of the occurrence of important events is still being investigated. Conservative timing is not at all supported by a sure date that can be trusted for a period of three millennia. The following is a division of the period of Ancient Egyptian history according to the conventional Egyptian Chronology.

  •     Age of Pradinasti (Before 3100 BC)
  •     Protodinasti Age (Estimated 3100-3000 BC)
  •     Early Dynasty (first to 2nd dynasty)
  •     Old Kingdom Period (3rd house to 6th house)
  •     Between the First Period (7th nation to 11th nation)
  •     Middle Ages (12th to 12th house)
  •     Between the Second Age (14th nation to 17th nation)
  •     The Age of the New Kingdom (18th nation to 20th nation)
  •     Between the Third Period (21st nation to 25th nation) (Libyan Period)
  •     End Times (26th nation to 31st house)

Between 5500 and 3100 BC, in the Age of the Egyptian Pradinasti, small settlements flourished along the banks of the Nile which empties into the Mediterranean Sea. Around 3300 BC, before the reign of the first Egyptian nation, Egypt was divided into two kingdoms known as Upper Egypt or Ta Syemau in the south, and Lower Egypt or Ta Mehu in the north. The border line between these two kingdoms is located approximately in the current Cairo region.

Tasa Civilization, the next form of civilization that emerged in Upper Egypt. This civilization was named after the Deir Tasa site, where a collection of ancient tombs was found. Deir Tasa is located on the east bank of the Nile, between Asyut and Achmim. The Tasa civilization is known as the earliest black-mouthed pottery it produces, which is a type of red and brown earthenware whose mouth and in the container are colored black.

The Badari civilization, named after the site of the Badari site, not far from Deir Tasa, appeared after the Tasa Civilization. The similarity between the Tasa civilization and Badari civilization makes many parties reluctant to discriminate between the two. The Badari civilization continued to make black-mouthed pottery (of a much better quality than the previous type), and given sequential dating numbers between 21 and 29.

Nevertheless, there is an important difference between the Tasa Civilization and the Badari Civilization which prevents scholars from combining the two, namely that the Badari sites have used copper tools other than stone tools, and therefore are Copper Age settlements, while the Tasa sites are still neolithic, and technically they are still considered Stone Age.

The Amra civilization was named after the site el-Amra, about 120 km south of Badari. El-Amra is the first site where this civilization was found not to mix with the Gerza Civilization that emerged afterwards. However, because this civilization is supported more by the findings of the Naqada site, it is also called the name Naqada I. Civilization.

Historical records of Ancient Egypt begin by referring to Egypt as a unitary state manifested around 3150 BC. According to Egyptian tradition, Menes, believed to be the unifying figure of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, was the first Egyptian king. Normally the egiptologists divided the period of government of the pharaohs into sequences compiled for the first time by Manetho in Aegyptiaca (Egyptian History) written during the House of Ptolemy ruled in the 3rd century BC. (IN.SJ/ENG/***)
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