Computer History and Development - The existence of computers began when Charles Babbage, a British mathematician, tried to design a mechanical computer.

This design was originally intended by Babbage to create a steam-powered calculating machine that could calculate tables of numbers.

The machine that Babbage invented in 1822 was later named "Difference Engine 0" and was predicted to be the world's first computer.

From a physical standpoint, the shape of the Difference Engine 0 itself is very much different from most modern computer models that exist today.

Even so, the working principle of these machines is the same as modern computers, which are capable of performing computational calculations (numbers).

Until 1890, an inventor named Herman Hollerith designed a card system that was able to calculate the results of the US census which was conducted in 1880.

From his design, Hollerith was able to save the government's budget as much as 5 million US dollars.

Furthermore, Hollerith continued to develop his potential in the realm of technology until he finally succeeded in establishing the IBM computer company.

Definition of Computer

A computer is a tool used to process data according to programmed commands.

The word computer was originally used to describe people whose jobs were to perform arithmetic calculations, with or without assistive devices, but the meaning of this word was later transferred to the machine itself.

Initially, information processing was almost exclusively related to arithmetic problems, but modern computers are used for many tasks that are not related to mathematics.

Broadly speaking, a computer can be defined as an electronic device consisting of several components.

These components can work with one another to produce information based on programs and data.

The concept of computer components originates from the von Neumann architecture, when John von Neumann described his architecture in 1945.

Charles Babbage, inventor of the first computer.

History of the Development of Digital Computers

The first digital computer engine developer was developed in 1930 by Alan Turing who was also a mathematical researcher.

Alan Turing succeeded in developing a machine that could execute a set of commands.

The machine was later named the Turing Machine, with the simulation of his idea also called the Turing test.

Although Turing developed the first machine, the first digital computer was developed by Konrad Zuse.

The first digital computer made by mechanical engineers from Germany before the outbreak of the second world war was named Z1.

Zuse assembled the first digital computer model in 1936 in Berlin in his parents' living room.

This digital computer model developed by Zuse was unfortunately destroyed during World War II. However, Zuse is still known as the creator of the first digital computer.

Then, when World War II was underway in 1943, John Mauchly succeeded in creating a machine called the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC).

This machine is equipped with analytical capabilities that can quickly calculate thousands of problems in seconds. Initially this machine was created to help the Army predict attacks.

Computer Development

The development of computers is divided into 5 generations in a certain period, based on their functions and uses.

The first generation of computers began when computers were used in academia and the military, such as the Atanasoff-Berry Computer made in 1937.

The Atanasoff-Berry computer was used to solve systems of linear equations and the Colossus computer to decode secret Nazi Germany.

The first general-purpose computer was built by ENIAC which was built in 1946. When the computer was turned on for the first time, Philadelphia experienced a power failure.

To store data, this generation of computers uses vacuum tubes and takes up one room in size.

Then, the second generation of computers began to develop when transistors were used to replace vacuum tubes.

UNIVAC was introduced to the public in 1951 for commercial use. Then, in 1953, IBM started its computer business with the release of the IBM 650 and IBM 700.

Various programming languages ​​began to be developed and computers began to have memory and operating systems.

Subsequently, the third generation of computers started when transistor technology increased to integrated circuits.

The minicomputer was a significant innovation in this generation and influenced the next generation of computers.

NASA used this generation of computers to launch the Apollo Program, such as the Apollo Guidance Computer to simplify control of the Apollo Command/Service Module.

Digital Equipment Corporation became the number two computer company behind IBM with its PDP and VAX computers.

This type of computer led to the development of an influential operating system, namely Unix.

Next, the fourth generation of computers started in the 1970s when the invention of the MOSFET and large-scale integration led to the development of the microprocessor.

Personal computers that are getting smaller thanks to microprocessors are starting to develop, starting from home computers and desktop computers.

The next technology is laptops and smartphones which are phenomenal, bringing various technology companies into a patent war over smartphones.

Fifth generation computers pioneered by Japan. In this fifth generation, Japan has used Very Large Scale Integration and Artificial Intelligence so that computers can solve their own problems.

In addition, computers in this generation also have a variety of colors with sharp resolutions.

In its development, fifth generation computer technology also made it possible to make portable computers, aka laptops.

The development of computers does not stop and every year there are always updates to make it as sophisticated as it is now.

In the future, even before and now, computers will help a lot and replace human tasks in doing and doing many things. (SJ/IND)

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