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History of Paper, Discovery Revolution in The World of Writing

 



INDEPHEDIA.com - Paper is a thin material produced by compression fibers that come from the pulp. The fibers used are usually natural, and contain cellulose and hemicellulose.

Currently, paper is known as the main medium for writing, drawing, printing and many other uses that can be done with paper, for example cleaning paper (tissue) used for dishes, cleaning to toilet purposes.

The existence of paper is a new revolution in the world of writing which contributes a great deal to world civilization. Before the discovery of paper, the ancient nations used tablets from burned clay.

This can be found from the Sumerian civilization, inscriptions made of stone, wood, bamboo, animal skin or bones, silk, and even palm leaves which are assembled as found in archipelago manuscripts centuries ago.

Early Use and Emergence Paper Industry

In some countries, written writing media which became known as paper is known to have existed for centuries. Ancient Egyptian civilization used papyrus as a writing medium. The use of papyrus as a writing medium was used in ancient Egyptian civilization during the time Pharaohs.

The use of papyrus then spread throughout the Middle East to Rome in the Mediterranean Sea and spread throughout Europe, although the use of papyrus was still felt to be very expensive.

From the word papyrus (papyrus) it is known as paper in English, papier in Dutch, German and French for example, or papel in Spanish which means paper.

History records that Chinese civilization contributed paper to the world. It was Tsai Lun who found paper made of bamboo that was easily available throughout China in 101 AD.

This discovery eventually spread to Japan and Korea as the Chinese nations spread to the east and the development of civilization in the region even though at first the way of making paper was a very secret matter.

In the end, this paper-making technique fell into the hands Arabs during the Abbasid era, especially after the defeat Tang Dynasty troops in the Battle of Taro in 751 AD, where prisoners of war taught how to make paper to the Arabs.

Since then, during the Abbasid era, the centers paper industry emerged, both in Baghdad and Samarkand and other industrial cities, which then spread to Italy and India, then Europe, especially after the Crusades and the fall of Grenada from the Moors into the hands people the Spanish as well as the rest of the world.

In 1799, a Frenchman named Nicholas Louis Robert invented a process for making sheets of paper in a moving wire screen, by means of these improvements now known as the Fourdrinier machine.

John Dickinson's invention cylinder engine in 1809 led to the increasing use Fourdrinier machine in the manufacture of thin papers. In 1826, steam cylinders were used for the first time in drying and in 1927 the United States started using the Fourdrinier engine.

The increase in production by the Fourdrinier engine and cylinder engine has led to an increase in the need for used cloth raw materials which has decreased over time. In 1814, Friedrich Gottlob Keller discovered the mechanical process of making pulp from wood, but the quality paper produced was still low.

Between 1853-1854, Charles Watt and Hugh Burgess developed paper making using the soda process. In 1857, an American chemist named Benjamin Chew Tilghman obtained a British Patent for the sulfite process.

The pulp produced from this sulfite process is good and ready to bleach. The kraft process resulted from the basic experiments by Carl Dahl in 1884 at Danzig. This process is commonly called the sulfate process, because Na2SO4 is used as a chemical make-up for the remaining cooking solution.

Until now, paper is needed by many people for various purposes, especially writing media for writing, drawing, printing and other daily necessities that require the use of paper. (KRT/IN/*)


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