History of Establishment, Heyday and Decline The Kingdom of Kediri

Penataran Temple, a relic of the Kingdom of Kediri. (Photo Source: Pemkab Blitar)

INDEPHEDIA.com - The Kingdom of Kediri is one of the large Hindu kingdoms in East Java Province, Indonesia.

The Kingdom of Kediri or Kadiri or Daha which was founded by the Isyana dynasty is also commonly called the Panjalu Kingdom.

The existence of the Kediri Kingdom in East Java is known from site findings, inscriptions and a number of historical relics of the Kediri Kingdom.

In addition, the existence of the Kingdom of Kediri is also explained in the Chinese chronicle Chu Fan Chi by Chu Ju Kua and the book Ling Wai Tai Ta by Chu Ik Fei (1178).

In the Chinese chronicle entitled Ling Wai Tai Ta, Panjalu's name is known as Pu-chia-lung.

History of Standing Kingdom of Kediri

The establishment of the Kingdom of Kediri or the Kingdom of Panjalu was inseparable from the role of King Airlangga who divided his kingdom into two regions at the end of November 1042.

The two kingdoms which were divided into two were known as the Kingdoms of Jenggala (Kahuripan) and Panjalu (Kediri).

Airlangga was forced to divide his kingdom to avoid conflict because his two sons competed for the throne.

His son named Sri Samarawijaya got a western kingdom called Panjalu which was centered in a new city, namely Daha or Dahanapura, which means city of fire.

Meanwhile, a son named Mapanji Garasakan got an eastern kingdom named Janggala which was centered in the old city, namely Kahuripan.

The division of the kingdom which was bounded by Mount Kawi and the Brantas River was carried out by a brahmin named Empu Bharada.

In the Kakawin Nagarakretagama, before it was split into two, the name of the kingdom led by Airlangga was called Panjalu with the center of government in Daha.

The Heyday of the Kingdom of Kediri

The Kingdom of Kediri experienced its heyday during the reign of King Jayabaya (1135-1159 AD).

Relics of famous literary works from the Kingdom of Kediri, one of which is the Bharatayudha Book which contains the Jayabaya prediction or Jayabaya Term (Jongko Joyoboyo).

The kingdom of Kediri or Panjalu in Java throughout the 11th and 13th centuries AD shared with the Sriwijaya Kingdom in Sumatra.

During this time, the territory of this kingdom expanded to several islands in the archipelago, and was even said to have defeated the influence of the Sriwijaya Kingdom.

The Kediri kingdom developed into an agrarian kingdom with agricultural products around the Brantas River.

Apart from farming, they also traded gold, silver, sandalwood, spices, and areca nut and played a role in trade in Asia.

The Kingdom of Kediri had trade relations with China and to a certain extent with India.

It is based on information from Chinese chronicles and Javanese literature inspired by Hindu mythology, beliefs and epics from India.

The fall of the Kediri Kingdom

In Pararaton and Nagarakretagama, the Kediri-Panjalu Kingdom collapsed during the reign of Kertajaya who ruled from 1194-1422.

The collapse of this kingdom stems from the Kertajaya dispute with the Brahmins in 1222.

Because of this dispute, the Brahmins then asked Ken Arok Akuwu Tumapel for protection.

Tit for tat, Ken Arok really aspired to free Tumapel, which at that time was a subordinate area of the Kingdom of Kediri.

In the battle that took place near the village of Ganter (Genter) between Kediri and Tumapel, Ken Arok's troops defeated Kertajaya's troops.

Kertajaya's defeat by Ken Arok marked the fall of the Kediri Kingdom which later became the Tumapel or Singasari Kingdom's power.

Names of the Kings of the Kingdom of Kediri

Maharaja Sri Samarawijaya
Sri Jitendrakara Parakrama Devotees
Maharaja Sri Bameswara
Sri Maharaja Sang Mapanji Jayabhaya
Maharaja Rakai Sirikan Sri Sarweswara
Sri Maharaja Rakai Hino Sri Aryeswara
Sri Maharaja Mapanji Kamesywara
Sri Maharaja Crengga / Kertajaya

Relics of the Kingdom of Kediri

Here are some relics from the Kingdom of Kediri, in the form of sites, temples, books and inscriptions.

Tondowongso site
Penataran Temple
Tondowongso Temple
Gurah Temple
Bharatayudha book written by Mpu Tantular and Mpu Panuluh
The Kresnayana book by Mpu Tanakung
The Smaradahana Book by Mpu Monaguna
The Book of Lubdaka written by Mpu Tanakung
Mataji inscription
Pandlegan I inscription
Panumbangan Inscription
Tanglan Inscription
Besole inscription
Bameswara inscription
Karanggayam inscription
Geneng Inscription
Pagiliran Inscription
Hantang Inscription
Japanese inscription Talan inscription
Padlegan II inscription
Kahyunan Inscription
Waleri Inscription
Wind Inscription
Net Inscription
Semanding Inscription
Checkers inscription
Galunggung inscription. Galunggung inscription
Kamulan Inscription
Pala inscription
Biri Inscription
Lawadan Inscription

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