Three Islamic Kingdoms in Sulawesi

Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons - Muslim traders who came from the Middle East, India, China and Malay played a role in the development of Islam in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

It was this contact between Muslim people from outside and the local community as well as among the nobility that an Islamic kingdom began to emerge in Sulawesi.

The formation of the Islamic kingdom in Sulawesi went hand in hand with the political conditions of the kingdoms in Sulawesi which were experiencing chaos because of the struggle for the throne.

At that time, kings and nobles used the power of Islam as a means to rule and in the end Islam was able to become the religion of the kingdom.

Here records a brief history of three Islamic kingdoms in Sulawesi.

Kingdom of Gowa-Tallo

The Kingdom of Gowa-Tallo is a combination of two kingdoms, namely the Kingdom of Gowa and Tallo. The Kingdom of Gowa-Tallo is also known as the Kingdom of Makassar.

The merging of the Kingdoms of Gowa and Tallo occurred in 1603. Sultan Alauddin (king of Gowa) and Sultan Adullah (king of Tallo) combined the two kingdoms to increase the welfare and strength of the kingdom.

Other sources say that the unity of Gowa-Tallo during the reign of King Daeng Matanre Karaeng Tumapa'risi Kallonna. Since then these two kingdoms have been known as the Kingdom of Gowa-Tallo or the Kingdom of Makassar.

In its development, the Kingdom of Gowa-Tallo made several conquests of small kingdoms in Sulawesi, such as the Bugis and Bone Kingdoms to increase their territory and spread Islam in Sulawesi.

The Kingdom of Gowa-Tallo reached its peak when it was led by Sultan Hasanuddin in 1653-1669. The 16th AD King of Gowa who also holds the title of National Hero succeeded in advancing the education and culture of Gowa-Tallo.

The figure of Sultan Hasanuddin, nicknamed the Rooster from the East, is known not to be easily influenced by foreigners. He also strongly opposed the presence of the VOC when it controlled some of the small kingdoms in Sulawesi.

Kingdom of Bone

The Kingdom or Sultanate of Bone was founded in the early 14th century AD by Manurunge Ri Matajang. The establishment of the Bone Kingdom began with the presence of a Tomanurung who was a nobleman as well as the central ruler of the Bone Kingdom.

Queen of Bone, We Tenrituppu, the first Bone leader to convert to Islam. However, Islam was officially accepted during the twelfth Arumpone La Tenripale Matinroe ri Tallo Arumpone.

The Islamization of the Kingdom of Bone was carried out by Sultan Alauddin of the Kingdom of Gowa-Tallo. The process of Islamization of the Kingdom of Bone was carried out by way of war.

In 1611 AD, Sultan Alauddin was able to conquer the Kingdom of Bone and make it an Islamic kingdom under the rule of Gowa-Tallo.

Kingdom of Wajo

Kingdom of Wajo (Bugis) one of the Islamic kingdoms in the region of South Sulawesi. Wajo was founded in the 15th century AD, and reached its peak in the 18th century AD when this kingdom became the hegemon for a time in South Sulawesi, replacing Bone.

This kingdom was able to expand its territory and invite other small kingdoms to join the Bugis Kingdom around the 16th century AD.

The Wajo kingdom officially embraced Islam in 1610. The Islamization of the Wajo kingdom was carried out by Gowa-Tallo through war. At that time, Gowa-Tallo succeeded in conquering the kingdoms of Wajo, Bone and Soppeng and converting the people in these kingdoms to Islam.

It is known that between 1608 and 1611, the Gowa-Tallo troops succeeded in conquering the countries in South Sulawesi, converting Soppeng to Islam in 1609, Wajo in 1610, and Bone in 1611. (*)

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