Kingdoms in East Java

Clown Temple (Indonesian: Candi Badut). (Photo Source: Kemdikbud) - In East Java Province, Indonesia, a number of kingdoms once stood, some of which reached their glorious peak.

From epigraphic sources in the form of inscribed stones on the Dinoyo Inscription, it is known that since the VIII century a government unit, the Kanjuruhan Kingdom in Malang, has emerged.

Kanjuruhan is believed to be the oldest Hindu-Buddhist Kingdom in East Java. In fact, this kingdom existed around the end of the 7th century AD (770 to be exact) until the mid-8th century AD.

In the tenth century, East Java entered a new phase. East Java, which was originally a suburb of the Ancient Mataram Kingdom in Central Java, then gained momentum as the center of power for various kingdoms.

These kingdoms, such as Medang (937-1017), Kahuripan (1019-1049), Daha-Janggala (1080-1222), Singasari (1222-1292) and Majapahit (1293-1527).

In this case, Mpu Shendok (929-947) was the most meritorious figure who succeeded in laying the foundations of government in East Java.

The hierarchical structure of government consists of the Central Government (Kraton), Watek (Regional) and Wanau (Village). This structure continued to survive until the XIII century in the Singasari era.

In the XIII century there was a new development in the constitutional structure in Indonesia in East Java, marked by the emergence of a new structure in government, namely the Nagara (Province).

Based on the Mulamalurung Inscription (1255) from the time of Wisnu Wardhana who also had the title Sminingrat stated that the government structure of Singasari was from the Center (Kraton), Nagara (Province), Watek (Regency) and Wanau (Village).

During the Majapahit Kingdom era, the structure received various refinements, consisting of Bhumi (Central/Palace), State (Province/Bhantara), Thani/Wanua (Village/High-ranking) and at the bottom Kabuyutan (Dusun/Rama).

In the state structure of Majapahit (1294-1755), the Mataram area was divided concentrically, consisting of Kuthagara/Nagara (Central/Kraton), Negaragung/Negaraangung (Inner Province), Mancanagara (Outer Province), Regencies and Villages.

Etymologically, the term East Java during the Islamic Mataram era appeared under the name Bang Wetan, with the area covering the entire Wetan Coast and Mancanagara Wetan (East Java Inland).

Furthermore, after the Chinese riot at Kartasura (1742), the entire north coast of Java and the entire island of Madura fell into the hands of the Company.

Meanwhile, the Mataram area lives in the interior of Java, which is called Mancanagara Wetan-Mancanagara Kulon. (*)

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